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学英语:从国家名称中理解形容词-双语


Making Sense of Adjectives from Country Names

从国家名称中理解形容词。让北京翻译公司北京金橄榄外文翻译有限公司与您一起看看以下内容:


Recently a reader asked us about how English defines the adjective of nation or country.


最近,一位读者问我们英语是如何定义一个国家的形容词的。


Hien Lai gave these examples:


显来举了这些例子:


"We have American as the adjective of America, Vietnamese as the adjective of Vietnam,


“American是America(美国)的形容词,Vietnamese是Vietnam(越南)的形容词,


Brazilian as the adjective of Brazil, Swiss as the adjective of Switzerland and so on."


Brazilian是Brazil(巴西)的形容词,Swiss是Switzerland(瑞士)的形容词,等等。”


Hien names some of the common suffixes, or endings we add to the placename to make an adjective.


显说的一些常见的后缀或结尾,我们将其添加到地名中构成一个形容词。


They include -ese, as in Chinese; -ish, as in Scottish; -ic, as in Icelandic and -i as in Iraqi.


它们包括Chinese中的-ese;Scottish 中的-ish;Icelandic 中的-ic,以及Iraqi中的-i。


At first look, it seems that there is no reason for the choice of one adjective form over another for a country.


乍一看,国家的形容词是固定的,没有理由去选择其他一种形式。


However, a closer look shows that history plays a role in how we chose them.


然而,仔细观察就会发现,历史在我们选择它们的过程中起着一定的作用。


The suffixes to go with country names were borrowed many years ago from Greek, Latin, French and even Arabic.


国家名称的后缀是许多年前从希腊语、拉丁语、法语甚至阿拉伯语中借来的。


Europe is commonly known as the Old Continent.


欧洲通常被称为“旧大陆”。


It has countries like England, Sweden, Spain, Scotland, Ireland, Turkey and Poland.


有英格兰、瑞典、西班牙、苏格兰、爱尔兰、土耳其和波兰等国家。


They all use the suffix -ish in the adjective form to become English, Swedish, Spanish, Scottish, Irish, Turkish and Polish.


它们的形容词形式都使用后缀-ish,即English、Swedish、Spanish、Scottish、Irish、Turkish和Polish。 


The suffix -ish, meaning "born in or of a country," came into use in Old English until around 1150.


后缀-ish意为“出生在一个国家的人”,直到1150年左右才开始在古英语中使用。


Staying in Europe, you will hear a similar suffix in the adjectives French and Dutch for the countries France and the Netherlands.


在欧洲,你会听到France和Netherlands的形容词French和Dutch中类似的后缀。


This is a shorter form of the -ish suffix that English speakers used for their close neighbors.


这是-ish后缀的缩写形式,英语使用者用来指他们的近邻。


Speaking of neighbors, we took the adjective Swiss in the 1500s from their neighbors, the French, who used the word Suisse.


说到邻居,我们在16世纪从他们的邻居法国人那里借用了形容词“Swiss”,他们使用的是“Suisse”这个词。


Looking further East from England, the country of Iceland forms an adjective with -ic for Icelandic.


从英格兰往东看,Iceland的形容词是以-ic为后缀,即Icelandic。


This is another old French and Latin suffix that you will find on terms related to groups of people in European history, such as Celtic and Gothic.


这是另一个古老的法语和拉丁语后缀,你会在欧洲历史上与人群相关的术语中找到,比如Celtic和Gothic。


A few countries make their adjectives with the suffix -i.


少数国家的形容词用-i作后缀。


These include Israeli, Iraqi, Yemeni, Omani, Pakistani, Somali and Bengali.


这些国家包括以色列、伊拉克、也门、阿曼、巴基斯坦、索马里和孟加拉。它们的形容词分别是Israeli、Iraqi、Yemeni、Omani、Pakistani、Somali、Bengali。


These countries usually have populations of Arabic speakers or have neighbors as Arabic speakers.


这些国家通常有说阿拉伯语的人口,或者有说阿拉伯语的邻居。


A similar sound is used in Arabic to make adjectives.


在阿拉伯语中,形容词也有类似的发音。


But do remember that the adjective for Madagascar has the same sound only it is spelled with the letter -y, Malagasy.


但请记住,Madagascar(马达加斯加)的形容词有相同的发音,当它的后缀为-y的时候,即Malagasy。


Portugal, a European country, forms its adjective with the suffix -ese.


葡萄牙是一个欧洲国家,它的形容词用-ese作后缀。


This suffix is borrowed from the Old French -eis.


这个后缀是从古法语-eis借来的。


So, when the Portuguese started trading with China, the word Chinese entered the English language in the 1570s.


所以,当葡萄牙人开始与中国贸易时,16世纪70年代的英语出现了Chinese这个词。


Country names borrowed into English from Medieval Latin around 1530 include Russian, Egyptian and Norwegian, 


1530年左右,从中世纪拉丁语借用到英语中的国家包括俄国、埃及、挪威,


all ending with one of the most common suffixes, -ian.


它们的形容词都以最常见的后缀-ian结尾,即Russian、Egyptian和Norwegian。 


You will find that many countries in the New World, or America, and newly independent countries usually have the suffix -ian or -an.


你会发现,在新大陆或美洲的许多国家和新独立的国家的形容词通常都用-ian或-an后缀。 


They include Canadian, Brazilian, Chilean or Peruvian in America.


它们包括美洲的加拿大、巴西、智利或秘鲁,它们的形容词分别是Canadian、Brazilian、Chilean和Peruvian。 


There are Estonian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian in Europe and Ethiopian, Nigerian and Kenyan in Africa.


欧洲的国家有爱沙尼亚、立陶宛和乌克兰,形容词分别是Estonian、Lithuanian和Ukrainian;非洲的国家有埃塞俄比亚、尼日利亚和肯尼亚,形容词分别是Ethiopian、Nigerian和Kenyan。 


When a new country is formed in modern days, its founders usually decide what they want to be called.


在现代,当一个新国家成立时,它的创建者通常会决定他们想要被称为什么。


In the African country of Burkina Faso, its founders wanted the people to be called Burkinabe, not Burkinese or Burkinish or Fasoan, in 1984.


1984年,在非洲国家布基纳法索,其创始人希望“布基纳法索人”的单词是Burkinabe,而不是Burkinese或Burkinish或Fasoan。 


Another new country in the Pacific Ocean, the Republic of Vanuatu, independent since 1980, 


太平洋上的另一个新国家,瓦努阿图共和国,自1980年独立以来,


uses the adjective form Ni-Vanuatu, which translates to "Of Vanuatu" from a local language.


使用形容词形式Ni-Vanuatu,从当地语言翻译成“瓦努阿图的”。 


To find the official name of a country or its people, you can go to The World Fact Book.


要找到一个国家或其人民的官方名称,你可以查看《世界概况》。 


The website also has useful maps and information on each country.


这个网站也有关于每个国家的有用地图和信息。 


The next time you are together with some friends, a fun party game might be to test their knowledge of adjectives, people and countries in English.


下次你和一些朋友在一起的时候,一个有趣的派对游戏可能是测试他们对形容词、人物和国家的英语知识。 


And when you have finished learning the adjectives for the countries,


当你学习完国家的形容词后,


there are many more to learn for people of different states or cities!


还有更多不同州或城市的人需要学习! 


For example, I came from the American state of Indiana, but people from my state are called "Hoosiers."


例如,我来自美国的印第安纳州,但是来自我们州的人被称为“Hoosiers”(印第安纳人)。 


And that's Everyday Grammar!


以上就是今天的《每日语法》!


I'm Jill Robbins.


吉尔•罗宾斯为您播报。 


来源:iyuba

 

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