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学英语:老子——无为即有为-双语


Lao Tzu - "Do Nothing", Achieve Everything

老子——无为即有为。让北京翻译公司北京金橄榄外文翻译有限公司与您一起看看以下内容:


Reading Taoist texts, I walked away with the impression that everything can be achieved through Wu Wei.


道家的理论是,世界万物皆是无为。


Wu Wei is literally translated as not-doing, non-action, or inaction.


无为的字面意思是不作为、无所作为。


So, when taken at face value, this seems to suggest that you can accomplish everything by doing nothing.


从表面上看,这似乎暗示着什么都不做就可以完成所有的事情。


That doesn't make much sense obviously.


看起来好像并无什么大意。


So, Wu Wei is often translated more loosely as effortless action or unforced action.


因此,无为通常被简略地理解为毫不费力的行动或非强迫性的做法。


But I prefer the term sincere action.


但我更喜欢用真诚的行动来描述无为。


Everything, in my opinion, is achieved through sincere action.


在我看来,一切都是通过真诚的行动实现的。


To fully explore what that means, let's start with a thought experiment.


为了更好地说明这一概念,让我们从一个思维实验开始。


Imagine that you woke up in a small sailboat.


想象一下,你在一艘小帆船上醒来。


An ocean filled with thousands of other boats surrounds you.


成千上万艘其他船只在海洋上环绕在你周围。


And there's no land in sight.


你看不到陆地。


What do you do?


你会做什么?


Do you follow the majority?


你会随大流吗?


You should stay with the majority.


你应该跟随大家的脚步。


A man says to you.


一个男人对你说。


There's great strength in numbers.


这样有数量上的优势。


And strength will get us to land.


强大的力量可以帮助我们上岸。


Or do you follow the minority?


或者你会跟随少数派?


Pssst.


切。


You should stick with us.


你应该跟我们在一起。


A woman whispers.


一个女人低声说。


Large groups are full of fighting.


大团体总是充满了各种争斗。


We'll move faster as a minority.


作为少数群体,我们的行动更敏捷。


And speed will get us to land.


我们上岸的速度更快。


Or perhaps you open your sails and let the wind and current take you wherever they lead.


或者,你可以打开船帆,让风和水流带你随意漂流。


There's no reason to follow anyone else, you think.


你认为没必要追随他人。


No one here actually knows the way to land.


这里没有人真正知道如何上岸。


And even if they did, I can't verify it for myself.


即使他们可以做到,我自己也无法证实。


What could they know that I don't?


他们能知道什么是我不知道的吗?


What knowledge do they have that I couldn't get myself?


他们有什么知识是我自己搞不到的?


There is no should.


没有什么应不应该。


I'll do what seems right to me in each moment.


我会每时每刻做我认为正确的事。


Allowing the winds and currents to carry you along is Wu Wei, or in my words, sincere action.


让风带着你走,就是无为,用我的话说,就是真诚的行动。


In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, in the entry on Daoism, it says: To act without wei is to remove the social,


在《斯坦福哲学百科全书》的道学词条中,有这样一句话:没有为的行为就是不要随大流,


conceptual character from our behavior and act on natural instinct or intuition.


根据我们的行为的概念性特征,根据自然本能或直觉行事。


So, in my understanding, to act without wei is to act without any shoulds.


因此,在我的理解中,没有为就是没有什么应该或不应该。


There's no I should do this or I should do that.


我不应该这样做,也不应该那样做。


There's no outer authority to follow blindly.


不要盲目追随任何的外部权威。


There's only, this seems best to me based on my current knowledge and experience.


根据我目前的知识和经验,这对我来说似乎是最好的。


So how does sincere action lead one to achieve everything?


那么,真诚的行动如何引领一个人呢?


To start, our actions arise from our understanding of the world.


首先,我们的行动源于我们对世界的理解。


So, right actions depend on right understanding.


因此,正确的行动取决于正确的理解。


But obviously our understanding of the world is flawed and incomplete.


但显然,我们对世界的理解是有缺陷的,并不完整。


So, what's more important than understanding?


那么,还有什么比理解更重要呢?


Learning.


学习。


We want our understanding to improve over time.


我们希望随着时间的推移,我们的理解会有所提高。


And sincerity is necessary for learning.


而真诚是学习所必需的。


Let me explain.


听我解释。


Learning is a natural process that occurs when a human is involved in the world.


学习是一个自然的过程,当一个人参与到这个世界中时就会发生。


I'm using the term involved in a very specific way here.


我在这里以一种非常具体的方式使用了参与这个词。


Involvement has two conditions.


参与有两个条件。


Sincerity and feedback.


真诚和反馈。


Sincerity is when you act genuinely, in a way that seems best to you, in a way that's not dependent on external authority.


真诚是指你真诚地行事,以你认为最好的方式,以一种不依赖外部权威的方式。


When you act sincerely, there's no one else to point the finger at.


当你真诚地行事时,没有人可以指责你。


All you can say is, that's what I wanted.


你只能说,这就是我想要的。


Feedback is when you're not sheltered from the consequences of your actions, for better or worse.


无论是好是坏,当你没有受到行为后果的影响时,你就会得到反馈。


Let's look at some practical examples.


让我们来看一些实际的例子。


Think about how easily you learn the mechanics of a video game.


想想看,学习玩电子游戏是不是很简单?


Why is that the case?


为什么会这样呢?


Two reasons.


有两个原因。


First, you're sincere in wanting to play and figure the game out.


首先,你诚心诚意地想要比赛,并想要弄清楚这个游戏是如何操作的。


Second, the game gives you feedback on your actions, allowing you to adjust your actions and learn the game.


其次,这款游戏会给你提供反馈,让你可以调整自己的操作,去更好地学习游戏。


So, when sincerity and feedback exist, learning occurs naturally.


因此,当真诚和反馈存在时,学习就会自然而然地发生。


Now think about the last time you crammed for a test.


现在想想你上一次临时抱佛脚准备考试的情景。


Maybe you weren't that into the course.


也许你不是很喜欢这门课。


So, there was no sincerity in your studying.


所以,你的学习没有诚意。


You studied because you felt you should, to get a good job or please your parents.


你学习是因为你觉得你应该学习,是为了找份好工作,或是为了取悦你的父母。


But you used flashcards to study.


但你会用反馈的方式来学习。


So, there was feedback.


所以,这是有反馈的。


What happens when you have feedback without sincerity?


如果你得到的反馈没有诚意,会发生什么?


Basic memorization.


死记硬背。


Intellectualization.


机械化。


You may have memorized the facts for a test.


你可能为了考试记住了这些知识。


But how long was it until you forgot them?


但没过多久就会忘掉。


Feedback without sincerity doesn't lead to true learning.


没有诚意的反馈不会带来真正的学习。


Now think about a summer.


现在想一想某个夏天。


Perhaps when you were younger, where you spent your time doing nothing but playing games and eating junk food.


也许当你年轻的时候,你除了玩游戏和吃垃圾食品什么都不做。


You might say: Well, that's what I would do again if I was really acting sincerely.


你可能会说:嗯,就算我现在真诚地去做,我还是会这么干。


I would just play games and eat junk.


我只会玩游戏,吃垃圾食品。


But I have to make myself do other things if I want to succeed.


但如果我想要成功,我必须强迫自己做其他的事情。


The problem here is not sincerity.


这里的问题不是诚意。


The problem here is a lack of real-world feedback.


这里的问题是缺乏现实世界的反馈。


Someone who's sheltered from the consequences of playing video games and eating junk food never learns to not do those activities.


那些不受玩电子游戏和吃垃圾食品影响的人永远不会想要去学习这些东西。


Because there's no real consequences for their actions.


因为这些行为不会有真正的后果。


So, sincerity without feedback results in no learning.


因此,没有反馈的真诚会导致学习是无用的。


So right action comes from right understanding.


所以,正确的行动来自正确的理解。


Right understanding comes from learning.


正确的理解来自于学习。


Learning comes from involvement in the world.


学习来自于对世界的参与。


Involvement comes from sincere action and feedback.


参与来自真诚的行动和反馈。


And to act sincerely is to live without wei or, in other words, to live Wu Wei.


而真诚的行动,就是没有为,也就是无为。


And to live Wu Wei, is to allow the winds and currents to take you.


而无为,就是随风而动。


And so by "doing nothing", you accomplish everything.


因此,通过“什么都不做”,你就什么都能做到。


As always, this is just my opinion and understanding of the Taoist concept of Wu Wei, not advice.


一如既往,这只是我对无为道家观念的看法和理解,并不是什么高深的建议。


Feel free to use this information however you like.


各位要自己去理解。


And if you have a different take on Wu Wei, I'd love to hear your perspective in the comments.


如果你对无为有不同的看法,请在评论中指出来。


来源:iyuba

 

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